In England and Wales, legal aid is administered by the Legal Aid Agency (until 31 March 2013 by the Legal Services Commission) and is available for most criminal cases and many types of civil cases. Exceptions include defamation, most cases of personal injury (which are now dealt with under contingency fee agreements, a type of contingency expense) and cases related to the operation of a business. Sometimes family cases are also covered. Depending on the nature of the case, legal aid may or may not be means-tested and, in some cases, legal aid may be free of charge for social assistance recipients, unemployed persons with no savings or assets. The Australian government and most state and territory governments also fund Community Law Centres, which are independent, not-for-profit organisations that provide referrals, advice and support to people with legal problems. In addition, the Australian Government funds legal services under certain legal regulations and legal services to Indigenous Australians. Development aid, or legal development aid as it is often called in the Philippines, has come a long way since the Marcos dictatorship. During martial law, the father of human rights senator Jose W. Diokno was sent to prison when Ferdinand Marcos arrested all political dissidents. After Diokno`s release 718 days later, the lawyer and former senator founded the Free Legal Assistance Group, the oldest and largest human rights law firm since 1974.  As a result of FLAG`s innovative use of development legal assistance, which included pro bono legal services as well as free allowances for financially disabled clients, free legal services have become common practice in the country. Later, laws were introduced requiring newly licensed lawyers to provide free legal services to the poor for a fixed and fixed term. The best-known law on legal aid for development is called the Community Legal Aid Service Rule (CLAS).
The CLAS rule applies to lawyers in their first year of practice.  Many development services are provided by most law firms and NGOs in the Philippines. Legal aid in criminal matters is a universal right guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In the United States, a number of AL delivery models have emerged. The Société des services juridiques has been authorized at the federal level to oversee these programs. In a “staff lawyer” model, government-level lawyers are hired solely on a payday basis to provide legal assistance to qualified, low-income clients, much like salaried doctors at a public hospital. In a “Judicare” model, private lawyers and law firms are paid to handle eligible clients` cases alongside paying clients` cases, much like doctors are paid to treat Medicare patients in the United States.  The community legal clinic model includes not-for-profit clinics that serve a particular community through a wide range of legal services (e.g., advocacy, education, legal reform) and are provided by both lawyers and non-lawyers, similar to community health clinics. Persons with disabilities who challenge claims for benefits are generally denied legal aid, forcing them to deal with complex and stressful cases without assistance. The number of people advocating for denial of benefits has dropped dramatically, and there are fears that the most vulnerable will lose out.  For more than a decade, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia have been reforming and restructuring their legal systems.
Although many important justice sector reforms have been implemented throughout the region, mechanisms to ensure individuals` access to legal information and mutual legal assistance are often inadequate and ineffective. As a result, many people – especially those who are poor or disadvantaged – do not have effective access to legal aid in criminal and non-criminal cases. Legal aid is in principle available for all civil actions before the Court of Session and Sheriff Court in Scotland, with the essential exception of defamation actions. It is also available to some statutory tribunals, such as the Immigration Appeal Adjudicator and Social Security Commissioners. There is a separate system of legal aid for criminal cases, and legal aid is also available for legal advice. The number of accused appearing in court without a lawyer has increased considerably since it has become more difficult to obtain legal aid, increasing the risk of miscarriage of justice. Legal aid for accused persons in criminal cases is means-tested and eligibility thresholds have not been raised for years to take account of inflation. Many defendants have to pay for their defense, which is sometimes almost as expensive as private payment for a lawyer or lawyer.
 Legal aid is the support of people who cannot afford legal representation and access to the court system. Legal aid is considered essential to ensure access to justice by guaranteeing equality before the law, the right of access to a lawyer and the right to a fair trial. This article describes the development of legal aid and its principles, as they are best known in Europe, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United States. In 2019, FLAG freely represented Maria Ressa in her defamation lawsuit against 16th President Rodrigo Roa Duterte, as it was her revelations about Duterte`s war on drugs that sparked global debates about the potential legal implications of Duterte`s actions.  More than 80% of the Legal Aid Committee`s budget is devoted to the provision of defence lawyers in criminal cases. This is generally due to two causes in South Africa: the majority of crimes are committed by the poor, and defence in criminal cases takes precedence over civil prosecution.  Prior to the adoption of the 1994 Constitution, 80% of all those convicted of crimes were unrepresented, as there was no right to defence and no obligation on the part of the government to provide such a defence. Following the adoption of the 1994 Constitution, the South African government was obliged to establish organisations such as the Legal Aid Council to facilitate access to legal aid.  Australia has a federal system of government that includes federal, state, and territorial jurisdictions.